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This meeting took place in 2006

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Determinants of Host Resistance, Susceptibility or Immunopathology to Pathogens: Integrating Knowledge from Experimental Models to Human Disease (J2)

Organizer(s) Anne O'Garra, Anne E. Goldfeld, Alan Sher and Bruce D. Walker
January 6—11, 2006
Keystone Resort • Keystone, CO USA
Abstract Deadline: Sep 13, 2005
Late Abstract Deadline: Oct 3, 2005
Scholarship Deadline: Sep 13, 2005
Early Registration Deadline: Nov 4, 2005

Supported by the Burroughs Wellcome Fund and The Director's Fund

Summary of Meeting:
The type of immune response that is elicited upon infection of a host with a pathogen is critical in determining whether the pathogen is eradicated or whether chronic infection ensues. Successful protective effector responses to intracellular pathogens such as parasites, bacteria and viruses are initiated by cells of the innate immune response which produce effector cytokines such as TNF, IL-12 or IFN-alpha. These, in turn, stimulate antigen-specific Th1 cells producing IFN-alpha and CD8+ T cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Humoral immune responses also offer protection against pathogens, however rapid mutations in the organisms and/or the lack of immunizing regimens which lead to long-term protection impede successful vaccination. Host mutations in cytokine signaling pathways and signaling pathways downstream of pattern recognition receptors on host immune cells result in profound susceptibility to a number of pathogens. Furthermore, many organisms -- such as Leishmania, Schistosoma or Mycobacteria -- inhibit protective immune responses via the induction of suppressive cytokines, whereas influenza has developed molecular mechanisms to interfere directly with signaling pathways important for the induction of the host antiviral response. Overall, major reasons why we have failed to-date in eliminating human pathogens are 1) successful strategies of immunoevasion developed by pathogens to dampen an immune response and, conversely, 2) pathogen-induced immunopathologies further complicate infections. Furthermore, the emergence and re-emergence of many infectious pathogens throughout human history, the difficulty in producing effective vaccines to protect against numerous pathogens, and the inability to intervene immunologically to abrogate many chronic infectious diseases such as HIV, malaria, TB, and schistosomiasis highlight the need for a deeper understanding of the immune response to infectious challenge. Cross-fertilization of knowledge gained from animal models of infectious disease with our understanding of human immune responses to a broad range of pathogens is critical to advance the treatment and prevention of devastating pathogens.

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Conference Program    Print  |   View meeting in 24 hr (international) time


7:30—8:30 PM
Keynote Address

Shavano Peak
Francis V. Chisari, The Scripps Research Institute, USA
Robust Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Vitro: Coevolution of Virus and Host


3:00—7:00 PM

Shavano Peak Foyer
7:00—8:00 PM

Shavano Peak Foyer
8:00—9:00 PM
Keynote Address

Red Cloud Peak
Antonio Lanzavecchia, Vir Biotechnology, Inc., USA
The Immune Battle Against Infectious Organisms: From Mouse Models to Human Disease

8:00—11:00 AM
Cell-Intrinsic Responses to Pathogens

Shavano Peak
John Hiscott, Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida, USA
Regulation of Antiviral Defense and Apoptosis by the IRF Transcription Factors

J. Marie Hardwick, Johns Hopkins University Schools of Public Health and Medicine, USA
Programmed Cell Death in Viral Pathogenesis

* Edward S. Mocarski, Emory University, USA
Cell Intrinsic Responses in Cytomegalovirus Replication and Pathogenesis

Kathryn E. Foulds, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, USA
Short Talk: IL-10 is Required for Optimal CD8 T Cell Memory following Listeria monocytogenes Infection

Dorian B. McGavern, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, USA
Short Talk: Adoptive Immunotherapy Induces Dendritic Cell Recruitment and Antigen Presentation in the CNS during the Clearance of a Persistent Viral Infection

5:00—7:00 PM
Pathogen Escape from Control

Shavano Peak
Dan R. Littman, HHMI/New York University School of Medicine, USA
Roles of Dendritic Cells in Intestinal Immunity and HIV Pathogenesis

Christopher L. Karp, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, USA
Regulation of TLR Signaling and the Host Interface with Pathogens and Danger

* Alan G. Barbour, University of California, Irvine, USA
Antigenic Variation by Borrelia Species in Natural Hosts

Chris A. Benedict, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, USA
Short Talk: Herpesvirus Targeting of the HVEM-BTLA Cosignaling System


7:00—8:00 AM

Torreys 1-4
8:00—11:15 AM
Immune Mechanisms for Protection versus Progression: From Mouse Models to Human Disease

Red Cloud
* Anne O'Garra, Francis Crick Institute, UK
Development of Suppressive or Protective Immune Responses to Pathogens: Implications for Control of TB

Alan Sher, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, USA
TLR Co-Operation in Host Defense against Intracellular Pathogens

Anne E. Goldfeld, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, USA
TB and HIV Pathogenesis: From the Field to the Bedside

Bruce D. Walker, Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, USA
Immune Control and Immune Failure in HIV infection

Andrea M. Cooper, University of Leicester, UK
Short Talk: IL-23 is Required for Vaccine-Induced Protection Against Aerosol-Delivered Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection

Jay K. Kolls, Tulane School of Medicine, USA
Short Talk: IL-23/IL-17: Roles in Host Defense Against Acute Extracellular Gram Negative Bacteria and Immnuopathology in Chronic Bacterial Infection

9:20—9:40 AM
Coffee Break

Shavano Peak Foyer
11:00 AM—1:00 PM
Poster Setup

Torreys 1-4
1:00—10:00 PM
Poster Viewing

Torreys 1-4
2:30—4:30 PM
Workshop 1: Host Susceptibility and Resistance Mechanisms in Mouse and Man

Red Cloud Peak
* Charles R.M. Bangham, Imperial College Department of Medicine, UK

Victoria Olivia Kasprowicz, Harvard Medical School, USA
Small Virus – Big Response: Divergent CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Immune Responses After Acute Parvovirus B19 Infection

* George Kassiotis, Francis Crick Institute, UK
Memory T Helper Cell Heterogeneity

Anthony A. Ryan, Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine & Cell Biology, Australia
Targeting Antigen Presenting Cells as a Strategy to Improve Protective Immunity Against Tuberculosis

Anuratha Sakthianandeswaren, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Australia
The Wound Repair Response Controls Outcome to Murine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Thomas J. Scriba, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Optimized HLA Class II Tetramer Staining Allows Ultra-Sensitive Detection and Phenotyping of Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells

Felix Yarovinsky, University of Rochester Medical Center, USA
Toll-Like Receptor 11 Recognition Renders Toxoplasma Profilin into an Immunodominant Antigen in the CD4+T Cell Response to the Parasite

Karina Yusim, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA
Rational HIV and Hepatitis C Vaccine Design to Optimize T Cell Responses

Shane Crotty, La Jolla Institute for Immunology, USA
SAP Deficiency Triggers CD8-Mediated Immunopathology and Hypogammaglobulinemia in a Non-Herpesvirus Chronic Infection

4:30—5:00 PM
Coffee Available

Shavano Peak Foyer
5:00—7:00 PM
Determinants of Chronicity in Viral Infection

Red Cloud Peak
Mark B. Feinberg, IAVI International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, USA
Host-Virus Relationships in Nonpathogenic SIV Infections

* David I. Watkins, University of Miami, USA
Defining a Protective Immune Response: In vivo Depletion of CD8 Lymphocytes in Elite SIV Controllers

Philip J. Goulder, University of Oxford, UK
Immune Selection Pressure, Viral Evolution and Host Evolution in HIV Infection

Charles R.M. Bangham, Imperial College Department of Medicine, UK
Short Talk: Immune Containment and Cell to Cell Spread of the Human Leukemia Virus HTLV-1

7:00—8:00 PM
Social Hour with Lite Bites

Torreys 1-4
7:30—10:00 PM
Poster Session 1

Torreys 1-4
8:00—11:00 AM
Patterns of Pathogen Growth and Behavior

Shavano Peak
Diane E. Griffin, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA
Measles: Virus Clearance and Protective Immunity

Herbert (Skip) W. Virgin, Vir Biotechnology, USA
The Host:Herpesvirus Standoff: Good News from the Front of an Ancient Battle

* JoAnne L. Flynn, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA
Dynamic Immune Responses in Tuberculosis

Jennifer Philips, Washington University School of Medicine, USA
Short Talk: Genome-Wide RNAi Screens in Drosophila Identify Host Factors Involved in Mycobacterial Infection

Linda F. van Dyk, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, USA
Short Talk: Interactions of a Viral Cyclin and a Host Inhibitor in Control of gammaherpesvirus Infection

5:00—7:00 PM
Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Shavano Peak
E. John Wherry, University of Pennsylvania, USA
Maintenance properties of virus specific CD8 T cells during chronic infection

* Yasmine Belkaid, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, USA
Regulatory T Cells and Parasite Persistence

Christine A. Biron, Brown University, USA
Integrating and Shaping Early Events in Immunity to Viral Infections

Jason A. Skinner, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, USA
Short Talk: Bordetella bronchiseptica Modulates Dendritic Cell Function and Host Immunity to Establish Persistent Infection


7:00—8:00 AM

Torreys 1-4
8:00—11:15 AM
Pattern Recognition in Persistent and Latent Infection (Joint)

Red Cloud
Caetano Reis e Sousa, Francis Crick Institute, UK
Pattern Recognition Pathways in Dendritic Cells

Eric G. Pamer, University of Chicago, USA
Immune Response to Aspergillus fumigatus Infection

* Michael B. Brenner, Harvard Medical School, USA
Lipid Antigen Presentation by CD1 Results in Rapid T Cell Activation As Well As Adaptive Immunity

Edward J. Pearce, Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Germany
Helminth Control of Dendritic Cell Function

Weiming Yuan, University of Southern California, USA
Short Talk: Immune Evasion of HSV-1 by Down-Regulation of CD1d Expression

Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Colorado State University, USA
Short Talk: Helicobacter Induced Colon Cancer in Smad3 Deficient Mice: A Synergistic Effect of Dysregulated Epithelial Proliferation and Deficient Regulation of Inflammation?

9:20—9:40 AM
Coffee Break

Shavano Peak Foyer
11:00 AM—1:00 PM
Poster Setup

Torreys 1-4
1:00—10:00 PM
Poster Viewing

Torreys 1-4
4:30—5:00 PM
Coffee Available

Shavano Peak Foyer
5:00—7:00 PM
Genetics of Immune Responses to Pathogens

Red Cloud Peak
* Jean-Laurent Casanova, Rockefeller University, USA
A Genetic Dissection of Cytokine-Mediated Immunity to Infection in Humans

Richard A. Flavell, HHMI/Yale University School of Medicine, USA
Role of Host Innate and Adaptive Immune Response Genes in Resistance to Pathogens in Mouse Models

Thomas R. Hawn, University of Washington, USA
Short Talk: Polymorphisms in TLR-Pathway Genes are Associated with Signaling Deficiencies and Increased Susceptibility to Tuberculosis

7:00—8:00 PM
Social Hour with Lite Bites

Torreys 1-4
7:30—10:00 PM
Poster Session 2

Torreys 1-4
5:00—7:00 PM
Challenges of the Intracellular Lifestyle

Shavano Peak
* Daniel A. Portnoy, University of California, Berkeley, USA
How Listeria monocytogenes Avoids Killing its Host Cell

David G. Russell, Cornell University, USA
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and the Innate Immune Tune

Anita Sil, University of California, San Francisco, USA
Histoplasma capsulatum Development in Pathogenesis

Yun Ling, Brown University, USA
Short Talk: Rapid Elimination of Toxoplasma gondii in Primed Macrophages: The Role of IGTP and Lysosomal Fusion


7:00—8:00 AM

Torreys 1-4
8:00—11:15 AM
Pathogen Manipulation of the Host Immune Response; For Better or For Worse

Red Cloud Peak
Carl F. Nathan, Weill Cornell Medical College, USA
Host-Pathogen Relationship as Competitive Genomic Immunological Challenges of TB

Philippe J. Sansonetti, Institut Pasteur, France
Rupture, Invasion and Inflammatory Destruction of the Intestinal Epithelium by Shigella: The Yin and the Yang of Innate Immunity

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Institut Pasteur, France
Lessons from Early Responses to Nonpathogenic SIV Infection in African Green Monkeys

* Carl F. Ware, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, USA
Virus Modulation of the TNF Superfamily

Javier A. Carrero, Washington University, USA
Short Talk: Role of Listeriolysin O in the in vivo Virulence of Listeria Monocytogenes

John E. Connolly, Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, USA
Short Talk: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Subverts the Immune Response through the Induction of Tolerogenic Myeloid Dendritic Cells

9:20—9:40 AM
Coffee Break

Shavano Peak Foyer
2:30—4:30 PM
Workshop 2: Shared Mechanisms of Pathogenesis in Mice and Men

Red Cloud Peak
* Paul Klenerman, University of Oxford, UK

* Andrea M. Cooper, University of Leicester, UK

Sara R. Klucking, Emory University, USA
Inefficient Production of IFNa by pDCs is Involved in the Limited Immune Activation and AIDS-Resistance in Naturally SIV-Infected SMs.

Alasdair J. Leslie, Kwazulu Natal Research Institute for HIV and TB, South Africa
The Biological Relevance of Supertypes in HIV-1 Infection

Emily J. Lyons, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, UK
Consanguinity and Susceptibility to Human Infectious Diseases

Amarendra Pegu, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, USA
Interactions between Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and the Lymphatic Endothelium

Shahin Ranjbar, Immune Disease Institute, USA
Tat from HIV-1 Subtype E Selectively Inhibits TNF Gene Expression via Interference with Chromatin Remodeling of the TNF Locus

Thuong T. T. Nguyen, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Vietnam
A Polymorphism in Human TLR2 is Associated with Increased Susceptibility to Tuberculous Meningitis

Esther Van De Vosse, Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands
Host Genetics of Salmonella (para-) Typhi Infection

4:30—5:00 PM
Coffee Available

Shavano Peak Foyer
5:00—7:00 PM
Diverse Immune Cells Combat Pathogens

Red Cloud Peak
* Stefan H. E. Kaufmann, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany
Interpretation of the Natural Host-Pathogen Crosstalk Provides Guidelines for Vaccine Design against Tuberculosis

David L. Sacks, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, USA
Immunology of Non-Curing Forms of Leishmaniasis in Mice and Humans

Paul Klenerman, University of Oxford, UK
HCV immunology – Tracking T cells in viral persistence

David G. Brooks, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Canada
Short Talk: Functional Re-Programming of Antiviral T Cells: Prevention of Clonal Deletion and Restoration of T Cell Activity during Persistent Viral Infection

7:00—8:00 PM
Social Hour with Lite Bites

Torreys 1-4
8:00—11:00 PM

Torreys 1-4
8:00—11:00 AM
Persistence in the Face of Adaptive

Shavano Peak
Britta C. Urban, University of Oxford, UK
Modulation of Dendritic Cell Funtion by Plasmodium Falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes: The Malaria-T Cell Standoff

Kevin B. Urdahl, Seattle Children's Research Institute, USA
Location and Function of Foxp3-Expressing T Regulatory Cells during Tuberculosis

* Michael Starnbach, Harvard Medical School, USA
Cellular Immune Control of Persistent Bacterial Infection

David M. Lewinsohn, Oregon Health & Science University, USA
Short Talk: HLA-E Restricted Human CD8+ T Cells Recognize Post-Translationally Modified HspX from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

5:00—7:00 PM
Successful Persistence and Latency Themes

Shavano Peak
Louis J. Picker, Oregon Health & Science University, USA
Immunobiology of Cmv Infection in Rhesus Macaques

Christopher M. Walker, Nationwide Children's Hospital, USA
Protection Against Hepatitis C Virus Infection

* David Thorley-Lawson, Tufts University School of Medicine, USA
Persistence of the Epstein-Barr Virus and the Origins of Associated Lymphomas for Real and in Virtual Reality.

Rajeev Mani Nepal, Ohio State University, USA
Short Talk: DM, but not Cathepsin L, is Required to Control an Aerosol Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis


7:00—8:00 AM

Torreys 1-4
8:00—11:00 AM
Type-1 IFN: Friend or Foe

Red Cloud Peak
* Giorgio Trinchieri, NCI, National Institutes of Health, USA
IFN-alpha in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases

Malik Peiris, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
SARS, Avian Influenza and Innate Immune Responses

Emil R. Unanue, Washington University School of Medicine, USA
Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Infection: Molecular Basis and Biology

Richard Pine, Public Health Research Institute, USA
Short Talk: Autocrin/Paracrine Responses to IFNalpha/beta Produced by Mtb Infected Macrophages

Steven W. Dow, Colorado State University, USA
Short Talk: Deleterious Role for Type I Interferons in Systemic Yersinia pestis Infections

9:20—9:40 AM
Coffee Break

Shavano Peak Foyer
2:30—4:30 PM
Workshop 3: Immunoregulation and Immune Evasion in Infectious Diseases

Red Cloud Peak
Ian R. Humphreys, Cardiff University, UK
OX40 Limits CMV Persistence in an Organ-Specific Manner that is Dependent on Distinct T Cell Subsets

John J. Osterholzer, Ann Arbor VA Hospital and University of Michigan, USA
CCR2 Mediates the Recruitment of Myeloid and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells to the Lungs of Mice Infected with Crypotoccus neoformans: Implications for Th1/Th2 Polarization

Michael H. Shaw, Brown University, USA
Negative Feedback Regulation of Local Th1 Immunity by IFN-gamma Induced ICOSL-Dependent Reactivation of IL-10

* Merilyn H. Hibma, University of Otago, New Zealand
Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Protein Reduces Cell Surface E-Cadherin: A Mechanism for Viral Immune Evasion

* Jean Langhorne, Francis Crick Institute, UK
Activation of CD4 T Cells by Different Populations of Splenic Dendritic Cells In Vivo in a Model of Malaria

Shabaana A. Khader, Washington University School of Medicine, USA
IL-12p40 Homodimer is Required for Dendritic Cell Migration and T Cell Priming Following Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection of the Lung

Bo Wu, Stanford University, USA
Measurment of FOXP3 MRNA Distiguishes Active from Latent Mtb Infections

4:30—5:00 PM
Coffee Available

Shavano Peak Foyer
5:00—6:20 PM
Influenza Still Plagues us After A Century - Implications for Host Responses to New and Emerging Viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

Crestone Peak
* Kanta Subbarao, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Australia
Host Responses to Avian Influenza and SARS: Implications for Vaccine Development

Herbert (Skip) W. Virgin, Vir Biotechnology, USA
Innate and Acquired Immunity to a Novel Norovirus in Mice

6:20—7:00 PM
Future of Research in the Immunology of Infectious Disease

Crestone Peak
Jacques F. Banchereau, The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, USA
Blood Leukocyte Transcriptional Fingerprints as Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Indicators

7:00—8:00 PM
Social Hour with Lite Bites

Castle Peaks



*Session Chair †Invited, not yet responded.

We gratefully acknowledge support for this conference from:

Directors' Fund

These generous unrestricted gifts allow our Directors to schedule meetings in a wide variety of important areas, many of which are in the early stages of research.

Click here to view all of the donors who support the Directors' Fund.

We gratefully acknowledge the generous grant for this conference provided by:

National Institutes of Health

Grant No. 1 R13 AI066871-01

We gratefully acknowledge additional support for this conference from:

Burroughs Wellcome Fund

We gratefully acknowledge additional in-kind support for this conference from those foregoing speaker expense reimbursements:

Merck Vaccine Division

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